• 1915: American Association of Labor Legislation (AALL)
    • o draft model health insurance bill that covers working class and all others who make less than $1,200/yr.
  • 1932: state legislation allows Blue Cross to act as nonprofit corporation, tax-exempt and free from insurance regulations – where these laws exist, Blue Cross Plan expands to dozens of states
  • 1935: Social Security Act
    • o signed by President Roosevelt
    • o system of social welfare and social insurance programs (provisions for elderly, disabled persons, widows and widowers, children, and unemployed)
  • 1939: Wagner National Health Act
    • o national health program funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities
  • 1939-1946: formation of Blue Shield Health Insurance gets non-profit status
  • 1940s: employee health benefits
    • o overcomes wage and price controls set during WWII and to compete for workers
  • 1945: call for single national health insurance program
    • o imposed by President Truman
  • 1962: Migrant Health Act
    • o support for clinics serving agricultural workers
  • 1964: first Surgeon’s General’s Report on Smoking and Health
  • 1965: Medicare and Medicaid programs
    • o signed by President Johnson
    • o comprehensive, low-cost health insurance coverage for elderly
  • 1966:
    • o International Smallpox Eradication program
    • o Community Health Center and Migrant Health Center programs launched
  • 1970: National Health Service Corps Created
  • 1971: National Cancer Act signed into law
  • 1974: HMO Act
    • o managed care to address rising health care costs (worked for some time, not anymore)
  • 1980s: COBRA and Americans w/Disabilities Act
  • 1984: National Organ Transplantation Act was signed into law
  • 1986: 41% of HMOs are nonprofit, down from 88% in 1981
  • 1988: McKinney Act passed to provide health care to homeless
  • 1989: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research created
  • early 1900s: almost all hospitals are non-profit institutions founded by religious organizations or wealthy donors; they begin charging for services – beginning of modern hospital system
  • 1990:
    • o Nutrition Labeling and Education Act passed
    • o Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency (CARE) Act began providing support for people with AIDS
  • 1993: State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
    • o expands health care coverage for children in low-income families that don’t qualify for Medicaid
    • o Vaccines for Children Program established – free immunizations to all children in low-income families
  • 1996: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
  • 2003: Bush signs Medicare Modernization Act (MMA)
    • o includes prescription drug benefit
  • 2010: Obama signs Affordable Care Act
    • o comprehensive health insurance reforms
    • o creation of health insurance marketplaces
    • o free preventative care and coverage for adults under 26 years old